Cuckoo Search :
Cuckoo search (CS) is an optimization algorithm (finding a value x such that f(x) is as small (or as large) as possible) based on cuckoo species which laying their eggs in the nests of other host birds (of other species). The optimal solutions obtained by CS are far better than the best solutions obtained by an efficient particle swarm optimiser and in some ways better than the powerful genetic algorithem too.
May be this is one of the main reason for this to be famous.
CS is based on three idealized rules:
1) Each cuckoo lays one egg at a time, and dumps its egg in a randomly chosen nest;
2) The best nests with high quality of eggs will carry over to the next generation;
3) The number of available hosts nests is fixed, and the egg laid by a cuckoo is discovered by the host bird with a probability . Discovering operate on some set of worst nests, and discovered solutions dumped from farther calculations.
Yang and Deb discovered that the random-walk style search is better performed by Lévy flights rather than simple random walk.
The applications of Cuckoo Search into engineering optimization problems have shown its promising efficiency. For example, for both spring design and welded beam design problems, CS obtained better solutions than existing solutions in literature. A promising discrete cuckoo search algorithm is recently proposed to solve nurse scheduling problem.
You can read Xin-She Yang and Suash Deb's paper (Engineering Optimisation by Cuckoo Search) .
This can be implemented in Matlab. check this: http://www.mathworks.in/matlabcentral/fileexchange/29809-cuckoo-search-cs-algorithm.
ieeexplore papers can be referred for more reference.